Male infertility… Diagnosis and tests
Tuesday, February 18, 2020
Male infertility is a rising global problem, declining semen quality is a major contributor to infertility. Studies have postulated that different factors, such as exposure to pesticides, industrial chemicals, heavy metals, obesity, tobacco smoking, sedentary lifestyles, poor nutrient intake, stress, physiological factors, genetic factors can influence male fertility.
Semen analysis and assays for sperm chromatin integrity are the most widely utilized and best studied adjunctive diagnostics in male infertility. Sperm DNA fragmentation detects a high level of defective spermatozoa.
Male infertility occurs due to one or more of three primary reasons. Firstly, a low sperm count (Oligospermia) can lead to difficulty in conceiving. Secondly, there can be problems with the transportation of sperm after production in the testes to the vagina. Such sperm transport disorders are responsible for 10-20% of male infertility cases. The third problem is when there is production of abnormal sperm (Teratospermia).
Blockages in the different ducts that carry the sperm from the testes to the urethra can cause problems for sperm transportation. The three main categories of problems arising in sperm transportation can be classified under the categories of congenital disorders, acquired disorders and functional obstruction.
Evaluating infertility is different for men and women. The health care provider will start by asking the couple specific questions about their medical history in order to isolate the possible causes of infertility.
Based on the responses received, different diagnostic tests will be recommended for the couple. The typical tests required to diagnose male infertility are discussed here.
The health care practitioner will ask about any recent or past injuries to the genital region. A physical examination will be undertaken to check for discharge or swelling of the prostate, any possible hernia, or extra tumorous growth.
The male will be checked out thoroughly and the health care practitioner will be able to identify any obvious defect in the genital area. Should there be nothing visibly wrong with the patient, then the next set of diagnostic tests will be suggested.
2- Ultrasound of Scrotum
3- Testing Hormone Levels
4- Testicle Biopsy.